新概念英语自学导读:第二册 Lesson69

课文详注 Further notes on the text

1.to drive in heavy traffic
在车辆拥挤的路上驾驶

heavy在这里表示“大量的”、“多的”、“密集的”:
Traffic is heavier on this road than on the other one.
这条路上的交通比另一条路上拥挤。

2.…I began to acquire confidence.
……我开始有了信心。

acquire通常表示通过努力“获得”、“学到(知识、技术、语言等)”,也可用来表示“养成(习惯等)”:
Mary acquired a good knowledge of Chinese in five years’ time.
5年之内玛丽学会了汉语。

Tom acquired a habit of smoking.
汤姆养成了抽烟的习惯。

3.Sure that I had passed…
确信我已通过考试……

句首省略了分词being或feeling,在句中作状语(与分词结构作状语的情况类似):
Interested in the story, he finished reading the book in two hours.
由于对故事(情节)感兴趣,他两个小时就把那本书读完了。

4.The examiner must have been pleased with my performance…
主考人对我的驾驶想必是满意的……

must have been表示对过去的事情进行猜测。 performance在这里表示“表现”、“表演”、“工作情况”等。(cf. 第13课词汇学习)表示“对……满意”时可以用be pleased with:
They are pleased with his work.
他们对他的工作满意。

The manager isn’t very pleased with his secretary.
经理对他的秘书不太满意。

5.Let us suppose that…
让我们假设……

suppose表示“假设”、“设定”时经常用于“let us suppose that”这个结构:
Let us suppose that there is a forest fire.
让我们假设发生了森林火灾。

6.in a mournful voice
以悲伤的声调

in a… voice 表示“以……的声调”:
He told them the news in a sad/excited voice.
他用悲伤的/激动的声调把这消息告诉了他们。

语法 Grammar in use

被动语态(6)

(1)在第10课、第21课、第34课、第45课与第58课的语法中,我们学习了被动语态的基本形式、它与情态助动词的连用、它在动词+宾语+不定式结构中的使用以及它在过去完成时中的使用:

Recently it was damaged by a visitor.
最近它被一个客人弄坏了。(一般过去时)

Passing planes can be heard night and day.
过往飞机日夜不绝于耳。(与情态助动词连用)

Over a hundred people must have been driven away from their homes by the noise.
有一百多人肯定是被噪音逼得已经弃家远去。(must与被动语态的完成式连用)

The bicycle was being sent to his home by train.
人们正用火车给他把自行车送回家。(被动语态用于过去进行时)

He never expected the thief to be arrested.
他从未指望那小偷能被逮着。(被动语态用于复合宾语中的不定式结构中)

The whole village soon learnt that a large sum of money had been lost.
整个村子很快知道,有一大笔钱丢失了。(用于过去完成时)

(2)被动语态还可以用于介词+动名词结构中。介词(after, before, on)+动名词这个结构通常相当于一个时间状语从句。如果两个动作中有一个在另一个开始之前已经完成,则可以用
after+动名词的完成式表示第1个动作;如果只表示先后顺序,则可用after(或 before)+动名词结构; on+动名词通常表示两个动作几乎同时发生:

After having been instructed to drive out of town, I began to acquire confidence.
在接到把车开出城的指令后,我开始有了信心。

The man called the police after being robbed.
那人遭抢劫后给警方打了电话。

He killed a child before being arrested.
他在被捕前杀死了一个孩子。

On/After being told that her mother was seriously ill, she hurried back to England.
她得知母亲病重后连忙回到英国。

被动语态用于介词+动名词结构在英语中是很正式的用法,一般不用于口语中。

(3)被动语态用于 want后面的不定式中时,to be可以省略:
I want the luggage fetched from the hotel this afternoon.
我希望有人今天下午去把行李从旅馆取回来。

want后跟被动语态时往往表示希望别人完成所说的动作。

(4)被动语态还可用于过去进行时,以强调动作的持续性:
She was being blamed.
她受到了指责。

词汇学习 Word study

1.practice与advice

这两个词均为名词,尤其是在英国英语中,它们的结尾都是-ice,它们的动词形式分别为 practise与 advise,其结尾都是-ise (在美国英语中 practice 既是名词又是动词)。

(1)practice表不“(反复的)练习”、“实践”、“实行”等:
Your spoken English will improve with practice.
如果你练习,你的英语口语水平就会提高的。

Have they put their plan into practice?
他们把计划付诸实施了吗?

practise (vt.,vi.) 可以表示“练习”、“经常做”等:
Jimmy used to practise (playing) football every afternoon.
吉米以前每天下午都练习踢足球。

She practises on the piano for three hours every day.
她每天花3小时练钢琴。

(2)advice 表示“忠告”、“劝告”、“建议”,是不可数名词:
She gave me some good advice/a piece of advice about jobs.
关于工作问题她给了我一些好建议/一条建议。

I took your advice and went to see a doctor.
我听从你的意见去看了病。

advise (vt.,vi.) 表不“劝告”、“向……提供建议”等:
She advised me to see a doctor.
她建议我去看病。

She advised me against going to the party.
她建议/劝我不要去参加聚会。

2.enjoy, entertain与amuse

(1)enjoy表示“欣赏”、“喜爱”、“享受……之乐”,后面跟名词、动名词或反身代词,用于主动语态:
I enjoy swimming in summer.
夏天我喜欢游泳。

I enjoyed my trip to the coast.
我这次去海滨旅行非常愉快。

We’re really enjoying ourselves.
我们真的玩得很开心。

(2)entertain的含义之一是“款待”、“招待”、“请客”:
We often entertain friends at weekends.
周末我们经常招待朋友。

Did he entertain you to dinner yesterday?
昨天他请你吃饭了吗?

(3)entertain在表示“使……快乐”、“给……娱乐”时与amuse同义:
Uncle Sam entertains/amuses the children for hours at a time.
萨姆叔叔一连好几小时地逗孩子们乐。

My children can entertain/amuse themselves for hours with telling stories to each other.
我的孩子们能一连几小时地互相讲故事玩。

(4)amuse表示“逗乐”、“逗笑”时,经常用于被动语态:
His story amused the children very much.
他的故事逗得孩子们很开心。

She was amused by her father’s funny stories.
她父亲那些逗人的故事使她很开心。

练习答案 Key to written exercises

2.难点练习答案
1 enjoy…practising 2 amused 3 advised…licence
4 entertain 5 entertained 6 amused

3.多项选择题答案
1a 2b 3c 4b 5b 6c
7d 8a 9a 10b 11c 12d

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